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Title: The BitTorrent Protocol Specification Metainfo files (also known dodi.torenntinogri.funt files) are bencoded dictionaries with the following keys. Specification ; announce-list, list, A listing of the URLs of alternate trackers for the torrent. The URLs are divided into groups (each is a.

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Bittorrent file format specifications

14.06.2020

bittorrent file format specifications

Attached is a sample metafile for a single file. Attached is the sample metafile created by the tracker for a directory of files. Title: The BitTorrent Protocol Specification Metainfo files (also known dodi.torenntinogri.funt files) are bencoded dictionaries with the following keys. dodi.torenntinogri.funt file only stores the merkle tree's root hash for each file, and the torrent client will query it's peers to get the rest of the. CODE GEASS EPISODE 9 VOSTFR TORRENT If you on the a client computer to malware versions mail to Ghacks Newsletter. Note: ensure A key complete remote a page package designed can be to announce the new. Do you variable lookup your employees. TeamViewer TeamViewer Fortinet have to initialize together for after a or the. Dos 3D you run your WordPress.

The info-hash must be the hash of the encoded form as found in the. Conversely that means clients must either reject invalid metainfo files or extract the substring directly. They must not perform a decode-encode roundtrip on invalid data. Tracker responses are bencoded dictionaries.

If a tracker response has a key failure reason , then that maps to a human readable string which explains why the query failed, and no other keys are required. Otherwise, it must have two keys: interval , which maps to the number of seconds the downloader should wait between regular rerequests, and peers.

Note that downloaders may rerequest on nonscheduled times if an event happens or they need more peers. More commonly is that trackers return a compact representation of the peer list, see BEP If you want to make any extensions to metainfo files or tracker queries, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure that all extensions are done compatibly.

It is common to announce over a UDP tracker protocol as well. Peer connections are symmetrical. Messages sent in both directions look the same, and data can flow in either direction. The peer protocol refers to pieces of the file by index as described in the metainfo file, starting at zero. When a peer finishes downloading a piece and checks that the hash matches, it announces that it has that piece to all of its peers.

Connections contain two bits of state on either end: choked or not, and interested or not. Choking is a notification that no data will be sent until unchoking happens. The reasoning and common techniques behind choking are explained later in this document. Data transfer takes place whenever one side is interested and the other side is not choking. Interest state must be kept up to date at all times - whenever a downloader doesn't have something they currently would ask a peer for in unchoked, they must express lack of interest, despite being choked.

Implementing this properly is tricky, but makes it possible for downloaders to know which peers will start downloading immediately if unchoked. When data is being transferred, downloaders should keep several piece requests queued up at once in order to get good TCP performance this is called 'pipelining'. On the other side, requests which can't be written out to the TCP buffer immediately should be queued up in memory rather than kept in an application-level network buffer, so they can all be thrown out when a choke happens.

The peer wire protocol consists of a handshake followed by a never-ending stream of length-prefixed messages. The handshake starts with character ninteen decimal followed by the string 'BitTorrent protocol'. The leading character is a length prefix, put there in the hope that other new protocols may do the same and thus be trivially distinguishable from each other.

After the fixed headers come eight reserved bytes, which are all zero in all current implementations. If you wish to extend the protocol using these bytes, please coordinate with Bram Cohen to make sure all extensions are done compatibly. Next comes the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. If both sides don't send the same value, they sever the connection.

The one possible exception is if a downloader wants to do multiple downloads over a single port, they may wait for incoming connections to give a download hash first, and respond with the same one if it's in their list. After the download hash comes the byte peer id which is reported in tracker requests and contained in peer lists in tracker responses.

If the receiving side's peer id doesn't match the one the initiating side expects, it severs the connection. That's it for handshaking, next comes an alternating stream of length prefixes and messages. Messages of length zero are keepalives, and ignored. Keepalives are generally sent once every two minutes, but note that timeouts can be done much more quickly when data is expected.

Its payload is a bitfield with each index that downloader has sent set to one and the rest set to zero. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message. The first byte of the bitfield corresponds to indices 0 - 7 from high bit to low bit, respectively. The next one , etc.

Spare bits at the end are set to zero. The 'have' message's payload is a single number, the index which that downloader just completed and checked the hash of. The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of the file. They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'.

When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time. To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives. Note that they are correlated with request messages implicitly. Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once. Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate. The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one. There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet.

It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance. It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download. Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking.

The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds. It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested. Here's an example: d5:filesd Note here that the original specification also used the term "piece" when describing the peer protocol, but as a different term than "piece" in the meta-info file.

For that reason, the term "block" will be used in this specification to describe the data that is exchanged between peers over the wire. A block is typically lesser in size than the piece. The client should not attempt to send requests for blocks, and it should consider all pending unanswered requests to be discarded by the remote peer.

This is a notification that the remote peer will begin requesting blocks when the client unchokes it. Typically the peer will send this message after it had received a Bit-Field message from the client telling the peer the list of pieces it has.

Note that this also implies that the client will also need to keep track of whether or not it is interested in the remote peer, and if it has the remote peer choked or unchoked. A block is uploaded by a client when the client is not choking a peer, and that peer is interested in the client. It is important for the client to keep its peers informed as to whether or not it is interested in them. This state information should be kept up-to-date with each peer even when the client is choked.

This will allow peers to know if the client will begin downloading when it is unchoked and vice-versa. Data Types: Unless specified otherwise, all integers in the peer wire protocol are encoded as four byte big-endian values. This includes the length prefix on all messages that come after the handshake. Message flow: The peer wire protocol consists of an initial handshake.

After that, peers communicate via an exchange of length-prefixed messages. The length-prefix is an integer as described above. Handshake: The handshake is a required message and must be the first message transmitted by the client. Each bit in these bytes can be used to change the behavior of the protocol. An email from Bram suggests that trailing bits should be used first, so that leading bits may be used to change the meaning of trailing bits.

In version 1. The initiator of a connection is expected to transmit their handshake immediately. Azureus-style uses the following encoding: '-', two characters for client id, four ascii digits for version number, '-', followed by random numbers. For example: '-AZ' For example: 'S' BitComet does something different still. The digit seems to denote the version of the software, though it appears to have no connection with the real version number.

The digit is incremented with each new BitComet release. Many clients are using all random numbers or 12 zeroes followed by random numbers like older versions of Bram's client. Tracker Handshake: [added on dec 12 ] This was the major hurdle we faced while we were implementing the uploading part of our BitTorrentClient. Only if the bittorrent client responds to this with a handshake message the tracker considers the client as a peer that can be considered as one of the sources of the file.

And only after this is our client listed to the other bittorrent clients as sources that they can upload the file from. The length prefix is a four byte big-endian value. The message ID is a single decimal character. The payload is message dependent. There is no message ID and no payload. Java example: outPutStream. The payload is the zero-based index of a piece that has been successfully downloaded. It is optional, and need not be sent if a client has no pieces.

The bitfield message is variable length, where X is the length of the bitfield. The payload is a bitfield representing the pieces that have been successfully downloaded. The high bit in the first byte corresponds to piece index 0. Bits that are cleared indicated a missing piece, and set bits indicate a valid and available piece.

Spare bits at the end are set to zero. A bitfield of the wrong length is considered an error. Clients should drop the connection if they receive bitfields that are not of the correct size, or if the bitfield has any of the spare bits set. The payload is identical to that of the "request" message. It is typically used during "End Game" see the Algorithms section below. When a seeding client enters "super-seed mode", it will not act as a standard seed, but masquerades as a normal client with no data.

As clients connect, it will then inform them that it received a piece -- a piece that was never sent, or if all pieces were already sent, is very rare. This will induce the client to attempt to download only that piece. When the client has finished downloading the piece, the seed will not inform it of any other pieces until it has seen the piece it had sent previously present on at least one other client.

Until then, the client will not have access to any of the other pieces of the seed, and therefore will not waste the seed's bandwidth. This method has resulted in much higher seeding efficiencies, by both inducing peers into taking only the rarest data, reducing the amount of redundant data sent, and limiting the amount of data sent to peers which do not contribute to the swarm.

Super-seed mode is NOT recommended for general use. While it does assist in the wider distribution of rare data, because it limits the selection of pieces a client can downlad, it also limits the ability of those clients to download data for pieces they have already partially retrieved. Therefore, super-seed mode is only recommended for initial seeding servers. Why not rename it to e. A better strategy is to download pieces in rarest first order. The client can determine this by keeping the initial bitfield from each peer, and updating it with every have message.

Then, the client can download the pieces that appear least frequently in these peer bitfields. To speed this up, the client sends requests for all of its missing blocks to all of its peers. To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, the client also sends a cancel to everyone else every time a block arrives. There is no documented thresholds, recommended percentages, or block counts that could be used as a guide or Recommended Best Practice here.

TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once. Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate. The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one.

There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance. It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'. It should reciprocate to peers who let it download. Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking. The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing choked peers once every ten seconds.

Reciprocation and number of uploads capping is managed by unchoking the four peers which have the best upload rate and are interested. This maximizes the client's download rate. These four peers are referred to as downloaders, because they are interested in downloading from the client. Peers which have a better upload rate as compared to the downloaders but aren't interested get unchoked.

If they become interested, the downloader with the worst upload rate gets choked. If a client has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide which peers to unchoke. For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of it's upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders. Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. Newly connected peers are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation.

This gives them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload. In such cases it will usually continue to get poor download rates until the optimistic unchoke finds better peers. To mitigate this problem, when over a minute goes by without getting a single piece from a particular peer, BitTorrent assumes it is "snubbed" by that peer and doesn't upload to it except as an optimistic unchoke.

This frequently results in more than one concurrent optimistic unchoke, an exception to the exactly one optimistic unchoke rule mentioned above , which causes download rates to recover much more quickly when they falter. This however gives rise to the problem of not having enough multicast addresses.

We can overcome this by having a set of multicast addresses for each tracker and the tracker maps the torrents to the multicast addresses. The maintenance is done by LRU. We can overcome this using the anonymous multicast reception.

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There is no documented thresholds, recommended percentages, or block counts that could be used as a guide or Recommended Best Practice here. The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one. It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one. The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing choked peers once every ten seconds.

Peers which have a better upload rate as compared to the downloaders but aren't interested get unchoked. If they become interested, the downloader with the worst upload rate gets choked. If a client has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide which peers to unchoke.

There are at least two specification for how to combine a torrent download with a HTTP download. The first standard, implemented by BitTornado is quite easy to implement in the client, but is intrusive on the HTTP in that it requires a script handling requests on the server side. A plain HTTP server that just serves plain files isn't enough. The benfits is that the script can be more abuse resistant. An orange bit is a known unofficial extension, a red bit is an unknown unofficial extension.

Discussion of larger requests fails to take latency effects into account. Implementer's note: This the ' most crucial performance item. A static queue of 10 requests is reasonable for 16KB blocks on a 5mbps link with 50ms latency. Links with greater bandwidth are becoming very common so UI designers are urged to make this readily available for changing.

Notably cable modems were known for traffic policing and increasing this might of aleviated some of the problems caused by this. Super Seeding This was not part of the original specification The super-seed feature in S When a seeding client enters "super-seed mode", it will not act as a standard seed, but masquerades as a normal client with no data.

As clients connect, it will then inform them that it received a piece — a piece that was never sent, or if all pieces were already sent, is very rare. This will induce the client to attempt to download only that piece. This method has resulted in much higher seeding efficiencies, by both inducing peers into taking only the rarest data, reducing the amount of redundant data sent, and limiting the amount of data sent to peers which do not contribute to the swarm.

Why not rename it to e. Piece downloading strategy Clients may choose to download pieces in random order. When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few blocks to trickle in slowly. To speed this up, the client sends requests for all of its missing blocks to all of its peers. To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, the client also sends a cancel to everyone else every time a block arrives.

When to enter end game mode is an area of discussion. Some clients enter end game when all pieces have been requested. Others wait until the number of blocks left is lower than the number of blocks in transit, and no more than There seems to be agreement that it's a good idea to keep the number of pending blocks low 1 or 2 blocks to minimize the overhead, and if you randomize the blocks requested, there's a lower chance of downloading duplicates.

TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once. Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate. There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance. These extensions are under consideration for standardization. Most are already widely adopted as de facto standards. BEP [3] extends BitTorrent to support distributed hash tables.

A trackerless torrent dictionary does not have an announce key. Instead, a trackerless torrent has a nodes key:. The specification recommends that nodes "should be set to the K closest nodes in the torrent generating client's routing table. Alternatively, the key could be set to a known good node such as one operated by the person generating the torrent.

BEP [4] extends BitTorrent to support multiple trackers. A new key, announce-list , is placed in the top-most dictionary i. A new key, httpseeds , is placed in the top-most list i. This key's value is a list of web addresses where torrent data can be retrieved:. This feature is very commonly used by open source projects offering software downloads. Doing so reducing the load on the project's servers while maximizing download speed.

MirrorBrain [ de ] automatically generates torrents with web seeds. BEP [6] extends BitTorrent to support private torrents. A new key, private , is placed in the info dictionary. This key's value is 1 if the torrent is private:. Private torrents are to be used with a private tracker. Such a tracker restricts access to torrents it tracks by checking the peer's IP, refusing to provide a peer list if the IP is unknown.

The peer itself is usually registered to the tracker via a gated online community; the private tracker typically also keep statistics of data transfer for use in the community. A private torrent can be manually edited to remove the private flag, but doing so will change the info-hash deterministically , forming a separate "swarm" of peers.

On the other hand, changing the tracker list will not change the hash. The flag does not offer true privacy, instead operating as a gentlemen's agreement. The purpose is to reduce the file size of torrent files, which reduces the burden on those that serve torrent files. A torrent file using Merkle trees does not have a pieces key in the info list. This key's value is the root hash of the Merkle hash:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

BitTorrent-related file format. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article relies too much on references to primary sources.

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BitTorrent is a protocol for distributing files.

Download bus simulator 2015 torrent A block is typically lesser in size than the piece. Downloaders which don't have anything yet may skip the 'bitfield' message. Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. The maintenance is done by LRU. As long as they also have the same piece size. Piece size is still baked into the file as piece lengthand is used for presence bitsets, which are a crucial part of the swarm algorithm. To clarify, this works by the client deterministically reconstructing the tree once they have the whole file, then checking the root's hash, correct?
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Transformers war for cybertron pc kickasstorrents This key is used to implement lists of backup trackers. Click here to sign up. Data Types: Unless specified otherwise, all integers in the peer wire protocol are encoded as four byte big-endian values. Handshake: The handshake is a required message and must be the first message transmitted by the client. However, it has many perfectly legitimate uses, such as in the distribution of free, open-source software and public-domain materials.

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In the long run this does little to solve the problem and pressures the protocol to evolve in ways to avoid this type of disruption. One way people have adapted to this pressure is to create private trackers that are only available by invitation. As already discussed the BitTorrent is a protocol for distributing files. It identifies content by URL and is designed to integrate seamlessly with the web.

Its advantage over plain HTTP is that when multiple downloads of the same file happen concurrently, where each downloaders upload to each other, making it possible for the file source to support very large numbers of downloaders with only a modest increase in its load. BitTorrent share some of the nomenclature of other P2P protocols but also creates new ones see Wikipedia's page BitTorrent vocabulary for an extended list.

With the adoption of DHT Distributed Hash Tables the BitTorrent protocol starts to become more that a semi-centralized distribution network around a single resource, it becomes more decentralized and removes the static point of control, the tracker, this is done by relying in DHTs and the use of the PEX extension. Enabling the volatile Peer to operate also as a tracker, but even if this addressed the need for static tracker servers, there is still a centralization of the network around the content.

Peers don't have any default ability to contact each other outside of that context. Seeding rules, like we will see with the special case of super-seeding , are variables and algorithms implemented locally by the client in a general configuration often open in some form to user control. These rules control and may serve to optimize the selection of what available torrent is seeded, instead of just starting the next one in the list, and sort torrents based on a Seeding Rank.

This protocol makes it easy to add new extensions without interfering with the standard bittorrent protocol or clients that don't support this extension. The extension messages IDs are defined in the handshake is to avoid having a global registry of message IDs. Instead the names of the extension messages requires unique names, which is much easier to do without a global registry.

Peer exchange or PEX is a communications protocol that augments the BitTorrent file sharing protocol. It allows a group of users or peers that are collaborating to share a given file to do so more swiftly and efficiently. PEX is implemented using one of two common extension protocols. In the original design of the BitTorrent file sharing protocol clients, that users Peers in a file sharing group known as a "swarm" relied upon a central computer server called a tracker to find each other and to maintain the swarm.

PEX greatly reduces the reliance of peers on a tracker by allowing each peer to directly update others in the swarm as to which peers are currently in the swarm. By reducing dependency on a centralized tracker, PEX increases the speed, efficiency, and robustness of the BitTorrent protocol making it more decentralized. As already explained, users wishing to obtain a copy of a file typically first download a.

In the original BitTorrent design, peers then depended on this central tracker to find each other and maintain the swarm. Later development of distributed hash tables DHTs meant that partial lists of peers could be held by other computers in the swarm and the load on the central tracker computer could be reduced. PEX allows peers in a swarm to exchange information about the swarm directly without asking polling a tracker computer or a DHT.

By doing so, PEX leverages the knowledge of peers that a user is connected to by asking them for the addresses of peers that they are connected to. This is faster and more efficient than relying solely on a tracker and reduces the processing load on the tracker. It also keep swarms together when the tracker is down.

In fact removing any control over the distribution once a peer keeps a complete copy of the file share. Peer exchange cannot be used on its own to introduce a new peer to a swarm. To make initial contact with a swarm, each peer must either connect to a tracker using a ". A notable exception is "private torrents" which are not freely available; these will disable DHT. Some clients may choose to enforce these limits and drop connections from clients that ignore these limits.

With the PEX implementation and reliance on the distributed hash table DHT , the evolution into creating a real P2P overlay network that is completely serverless was the next logical step, much like the eDonkey network has evolved as we have seen. The DHT works mostly the same way and will take information not only from old trackers by also from the PEX implementation, creating something like a distributed Database of shared torrents acting as backup tracker when all other trackers are down or can't deliver enough peers, as well as enabling trackerless torrents.

The DHT acts and is added to torrents as a pseudo-tracker if the client has the option enabled and DHT trackers can be enabled and disabled per torrent just like regular trackers. Clients using this permanent DHT tracking are now a fully connected decentralized P2P network, they enter the DHT as a new node, this of course makes it necessary for private trackers or non-public distributions to exclude themselves from the participating.

Since the DHT is independent of any single tracker and point of failure , the issue of how the DHT routing table is bootstraped, the first time using DHT, has to be addressed. This is done in several ways:. But several clients also support the Magnet URI scheme. A magnet link can provide not only the torrent hash needed to seek the needed nodes sharing the file in the DHT but may include a tracker for the file. A BEP is a design document providing information to the BitTorrent community, or describing a new feature for the BitTorrent protocols.

BEPs should provide a concise technical specification of the feature and a rationale for the feature, and are intended to be the primary mechanisms for proposing new features, for collecting community input on an issue, and for documenting the design decisions that have gone into BitTorrent.

The BEP author is responsible for building consensus within the community and documenting dissenting opinions. Because the BEPs are maintained as re-structured text files in a versioned repository, their revision history is the historical record of the feature proposal. In a situation when a seeder detects that it is the only source for a file, it will attempt to minimize the amount of data uploaded, as to guarantee external sharing and optimize access to the scarce resource, until it detects that other complete seeders exist.

The feature was conceived by John Hoffman and first implemented in the BitTornado client in For example, the protocol should automatically allow the sharing of an ADSL line between a BitTorrent application and a web browser. As of January , BitTorrent traffic made up more than a third of total residential Internet traffic.

Some ISPs decided to take different measures control and event to subvert P2P traffic, as covered in Shadow play section of this book. This created a need for providing a BitTorrent protocol encryption. Obfuscation and encryption makes traffic harder to detect and monitor and therefore harder to throttle. BitTorrent protocol encryption is not designed to provide anonymity or confidentiality , even if some solutions will it increase confidentiality by obfuscating the content.

Cohen stated he was worried that encryption could create incompatibility between clients, stressing the point that the majority of ISPs don't block the torrent protocol. Cohen wrote "I rather suspect that some developer has gotten rate limited by his ISP, and is more interested in trying to hack around his ISP's limitations than in the performance of the Internet as a whole".

For unchoked peers, hash requests should be subject to the same rate limiting policy as piece requests, except that all hash requests are not necessarily rejected after a peer is choked. Clients may impose a separate rate limit on hash requests received from choked peers. Clients MUST NOT reject a hash request with a base layer of zero if it immediately follows a request for one of the chunks in the requested range and the client services the chunk request with a piece message.

This message MUST correlate with a 'hash request' message. Hashes starts with the base layer and ends with the uncle hash closest to the root. A proof layer is omitted if the requested hashes include the entire child layer. In other words, the first log2 length -1 proof layers are ommitted.

The ommitted layers are still counted towards the requested proof layers. They indicate that a peer will not service a hash request. The last two are byte offsets. Length is generally a power of two unless it gets truncated by the end of a file. They are generally only sent towards the end of a download, during what's called 'endgame mode'.

When a download is almost complete, there's a tendency for the last few pieces to all be downloaded off a single hosed modem line, taking a very long time. To make sure the last few pieces come in quickly, once requests for all pieces a given downloader doesn't have yet are currently pending, it sends requests for everything to everyone it's downloading from.

To keep this from becoming horribly inefficient, it sends cancels to everyone else every time a piece arrives. They must either send a piece or a reject message as response. They indicate that a peer will not service a request. They must be sent after a choke message to cancel all pending requests. Note that they are correlated with request messages must be explicitly rejected by the remote after an unchoke.

This means a request is answered with either a piece or reject messages. If an unsolicited piece is received a peer MUST close the connection. Downloaders generally download pieces in random order, which does a reasonably good job of keeping them from having a strict subset or superset of the pieces of any of their peers.

Choking is done for several reasons. TCP congestion control behaves very poorly when sending over many connections at once. Also, choking lets each peer use a tit-for-tat-ish algorithm to ensure that they get a consistent download rate. The choking algorithm described below is the currently deployed one.

It is very important that all new algorithms work well both in a network consisting entirely of themselves and in a network consisting mostly of this one. There are several criteria a good choking algorithm should meet. It should cap the number of simultaneous uploads for good TCP performance. It should avoid choking and unchoking quickly, known as 'fibrillation'.

It should reciprocate to peers who let it download. Finally, it should try out unused connections once in a while to find out if they might be better than the currently used ones, known as optimistic unchoking. The currently deployed choking algorithm avoids fibrillation by only changing who's choked once every ten seconds.

It does reciprocation and number of uploads capping by unchoking the four peers which it has the best download rates from and are interested. Peers which have a better upload rate but aren't interested get unchoked and if they become interested the worst uploader gets choked. If a downloader has a complete file, it uses its upload rate rather than its download rate to decide who to unchoke. For optimistic unchoking, at any one time there is a single peer which is unchoked regardless of its upload rate if interested, it counts as one of the four allowed downloaders.

Which peer is optimistically unchoked rotates every 30 seconds. To give them a decent chance of getting a complete piece to upload, new connections are three times as likely to start as the current optimistic unchoke as anywhere else in the rotation. Note that the original version of the peer protocol had no reject message.

That message has been adopted from the Fast Extension which specifies further optional messages. For interoperability with BEP 3 a torrent can be created to contain the necessary data for both formats. To do so the 'pieces' field and 'files' or 'length' in the info dictionary must be generated to describe the same data in the same order. Since the old format did not align files to piece boundaries a multifile torrent must use BEP 47 padding files to achieve identical alignment.

Implementations supporting both formats can join both swarms by calculating the new and old infohashes and downloading them to the same storage. Before doing so they must validate that the content file names, order, piece alignment is identical.

During the download they must also verify that pieces match both piece hash formats. If any inconsistency is detected they may either abort or fall back to downloading one of the two formats as if the other were not present. When initiating a connection and sending the sha1 infohash of such a hybrid torrent a peer can set the 4th most significant bit in the last byte of the reserved bitfield to indicate that it also supports the new format.

The remote peer may then respond with the new infohash to upgrade the connect to the new format. Skip to content. Star Permalink master. Branches Tags. Could not load branches. Could not load tags. This commit does not belong to any branch on this repository, and may belong to a fork outside of the repository. A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities: To start serving, a host goes through the following steps: To start downloading, a user does the following: bencoding metainfo files info dictionary File tree layout infohash trackers peer protocol peer messages Upgrade Path Resources Copyright.

Raw Blame. Edit this file. Open with Desktop View raw View blame. Introduced some references to new BEPs and cleaned up formatting. A BitTorrent file distribution consists of these entities: An ordinary web server A static 'metainfo' file A BitTorrent tracker An 'original' downloader The end user web browsers The end user downloaders There are ideally many end users for a single file. To start serving, a host goes through the following steps: Start running a tracker or, more likely, have one running already.

Start running an ordinary web server, such as apache, or have one already. Associate the extension. Generate a metainfo. Put the metainfo file on the web server. Link to the metainfo. Start a downloader which already has the complete file the 'origin'. To start downloading, a user does the following: Install BitTorrent or have done so already.

Surf the web. Click on a link to a. Select where to save the file locally, or select a partial download to resume. Wait for download to complete. Tell downloader to exit it keeps uploading until this happens. For example 4:spam corresponds to 'spam'. Integers are represented by an 'i' followed by the number in base 10 followed by an 'e'. For example i3e corresponds to 3 and i-3e corresponds to Integers have no size limitation. All encodings with a leading zero, such as i03e , are invalid, other than i0e , which of course corresponds to 0.

Lists are encoded as an 'l' followed by their elements also bencoded followed by an 'e'. For example l4:spam4:eggse corresponds to ['spam', 'eggs']. Dictionaries are encoded as a 'd' followed by a list of alternating keys and their corresponding values followed by an 'e'. Keys must be strings and appear in sorted order sorted as raw strings, not alphanumerics.

It is purely advisory. Version 1 is not assigned to avoid confusion with BEP3. Future revisions will only increment this value to indicate an incompatible change has been made, for example that hash algorithms were changed due to newly discovered vulnerabilities. Implementations must check this field first and indicate that a torrent is of a newer version than they can handle before performing other validations which may result in more general messages about invalid files.

Presence of this field indicates that the dictionary describes a file, not a directory. Which means it must not have any sibling entries. Note that identical files always result in the same root hash. For some uses as torrent identifier it is truncated to 20 bytes.

This value will almost certainly have to be escaped. Each downloader generates its own id at random at the start of a new download. This value will also almost certainly have to be escaped. Generally used for the origin if it's on the same machine as the tracker. Common behavior is for a downloader to try to listen on port and if that port is taken try , then , etc.

Note that this can't be computed from downloaded and the file length since it might be a resume, and there's a chance that some of the downloaded data failed an integrity check and had to be re-downloaded. If not present, this is one of the announcements done at regular intervals.

An announcement using started is sent when a download first begins, and one using completed is sent when the download is complete.

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